Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing

CoKeeper enables fast reaction and information propagation both inside and across the boundaries of VMs. Events and messages are different in that events are only visible to the VM where it is created while messages are transmitted between VMs. Different from Xen event channel, CoKeeper is light-weight and does not lead to context switches across VMs and virtual machine monitor . Figures 6 and 7 depicted the relationship between the time cost and the number of blocks under different layer settings. Considering the fixed setting of the number of layers, when the number of blocks increased, time costs of the two schemes were both growing, but our scheme’s time cost grew slower than Phantom. In addition, when the number of blocks was roughly the same, the growth of the number of layers had an impact on both schemes.
Other challenges come from legal and regulatory. While protecting users’ privacy, we should be alert to illegal transactions and money laundering. Since there is an urgent demand for introducing effective privacy-preserving method into cryptocurrencies, we investigate the effectiveness of key approaches and analyze their defects. We also hope to provide help in proposing new privacy-preserving mechanisms in cryptocurrencies.
Such a system introduces a single point of failure which makes the system rather unreliable and susceptible to tampering of messages. In a classical IoT network, devices are authenticated using access credentials like username and passwords or other access tokens. The architecture for those networks involved a protocol to help establish connection between the edge de- vices that served as entry point into enterprise service providers and edge nodes . The edge devices sense data from its immediate environment using Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol from the client to a broker; a server for message validation, trans-formation and routing as depicted in Fig. The gist of this survey is to supply researchers a overview of blockchain consensus mechanisms and its applications in IoT networks. We classify the consensus mechanisms into four categories as blockchain consensus mechanisms for security, scalability, energy saving, and performance improvement. Meanwhile, we analyze advantages and disadvantages of these consensus mechanisms. We also point out the future direction of blockchain consensus mechanisms from the perspective of security, scalability, performance improvement, and resource consumption. It is foreseeable that more secure, low energy consumption, high scalability, and more efficient blockchain consensus mechaonclunism will be the pursuit of the future combination of blockchain and Internet of Things. This loss in data availability was addressed by the SDUPPA algorithm proposed by Liao et al. using random replacement techniques based on the premise of satisfying the m-invariance model.

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An attention-based fusion mechanism was also presented to emphasize the informative modalities for multimodal fusion. The major difference between our design and CAT-LSTM is that we employ the self-attention mechanism rather than the soft attention. In addition, we also distinguish the impact of three modalities in the multimodal attention layer. Using the protocol, multiple agents agreed to on an output value in an open membership fashion. The trust clusters were achieved using an intactness algorithm in the stellar consensus protocol. The protocol relied on the quorum slices of federated participants which adopted a dynamic set of participants in a decentralized way towards the formation of clusters. Gradient-based attacks perturb the images in the direction of the gradient, so that the model can be misclassified with the smallest perturbation. We briefly introduce the classic gradient-based attacks.
On the other hand, memristor can also perform logical operations . The memory fusion feature of memristor can reduce the data transfer process greatly to improve the bandwidth and effectively solve the problem of “storage wall” . There has been plenty of researches into memristor logic, including Implication Logic and MAGIC . They all use the characteristics of memristor storage and calculation, but there are still some shortcomings in solving the problems of energy consumption and delay. Memristor can implement logical operations through complete logic-imply and negation, which is called Implication Logic . Any logic can be expressed in the form of the two basic logics and their combination. This logic operation method breaks traditional circuit structure based on logic gates. Implication Logic shows the characteristics of memristor storage and computing integration and provides a new direction for memristor logic operation.
Finally, one goal of adversarial examples is to improve the robustness of DNN. This is also a fundamental problem in the community and deserves special attention. Identity string and corresponding Ethereum address will be registered by the AMC contract. Patient-hospital contract , defines the relationship between a patient and a hospital, where the patient has the ownership of his medical records and the hospital has the stewardship. Figure 3 depicts such a process, in which n privacy levels are classified. Correspondingly, n user sets are defined and n data encryption keys are chosen by the owner, which are broadcast encrypted. A BE header denotes the ciphertext message of an encryption key Ki that is encrypted to a user set Sj . The top-to-bottom arrow indicates that the privacy level is increasing from K1 to Kn , hence a key with a higher subscript has higher privilege and can access more information. An authorized user can decrypt the corresponding broadcast header to recover a content encryption key. For each third-party user that is allowed by the patient to access his medical information, a corresponding allowed privacy level is defined to restrict his access privilege.
Feng et al. presented a new consensus algorithm named proof-of-trust-negotiation to tackle the problem of DoS attack and bribery attack happened on the blockchain with fixed miners. They designed negotiation rules and measured the trustworthiness of miners by trust management. Moreover, they select random honest miners by a trusted random selection. The experiment results show that PoTN is of higher efficiency than common consensus algorithms on the block in term of block creation. Therefore, the detection time and economic cost increase, and the process is more complicated than before. To solve the above dilemma, experts try to combine machine learning with malware detection. The static analysis method based on machine learning can be divided into the following aspects. String analysis refers to the extraction of a sequence of characters from an executable file and is the simplest way to obtain the functionality of a program.

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We found the execution time of smart contracts is mainly decided by the block mining operation, which is further decided by the PoW consensus mechanism adopted in current Ethereum. Finally, our test result includes 90 trials of smart contract execution and block mining. The average time of smart contract creation and execution is about 11.9 s, which is 2.49 s less than current Ethereum block mining time (14.39 s, November 11, 2019). This is reasonable, because our test environment is a LAN, where the propagation time for a transaction to be broadcast to the majority of peers can almost be omitted. We choose Ethereum and its smart contract language solidity to implement the business logic of medical data management is because of its code maturity. However, there are also other options such as Hyperledger. Actually, the gas consumption necessary for smart contract execution in Ethereum is a big burden for its applications, especially considering the fact that medical data access events happen frequently. In the future, we will consider our implementation in Hyperledger Fabric to increase its throughput to fit the high-frequent daily events of medical data management. On mobile side, where the data migration demand is expensive, the existing Von Neumann architecture cannot support its demand because of the separation of storage and computation . Memristor, a new device that integrates storage and computing , is expected to solve the problems with low power and short delay of AES.
Secondly, we test the time cost of smart contract creation and execution under Ethereum test platform. Specifically, we deployed two servers in our lab network, whose hardware and software environment is depicted in Table 2. Figure 6 illustrates the creation overhead of smart contracts and execution overhead of contract functions . We can see that both overheads are between 10 and 14 s, which falls in the typical time range in Ethereum. It is worth noting that both the creation and execution of a smart contract include the time period from creating or executing a smart contract to the point when it is included in a successfully mined block.

  • In centralized verification scheme, both data corruption and tag corruption can lead to verification failure.
  • Other sensory stimuli, such as smell , auditory , or touch stimuli are rarely considered.
  • The updated ledger information after client A initiates the settlement request is shown in Table 9.
  • As the name suggests, no permission is required to become part of this blockchain network.
  • The proposed solution allows delegating the responsibility to scale-up and scale-out the cloud system to a new component of cloud orchestrator.

Cryptocurrencies with weak anonymity try to add privacy-preserving techniques to original projects. For instance, Litecoin has invested a lot of effort in Mimblewimble, hoping to add confidential transaction. Although the privacy of these cryptocurrencies has been greatly improved, they are still not completely anonymous. Table 1 depicts the comparison of privacy-preserving techniques and privacy performance of different cryptocurrencies. Blockchain experts and cryptographers are making unremitting efforts to realize the real “anonymous currency”. Dagcoin uses an algorithm to find the “best parent”, starting from unverified transactions to the genesis. Graphchain uses a Resource Description Framework graph and extends blockchain functionality to it instead of modifying the blockchain to accommodate graph features . Dexon uses a Byzantine agreement protocol similar to Algorand for consensus and achieves a very high transaction throughput. SPECTRE uses a DAG that allows frequent, concurrent mining without knowledge of the propagation delay and the main chain in the ledger. Read more about eth usd converter here. It is pertinent to note that none of the earlier techniques combine Bayesian Statistical models like Tangle, developed by the IOTA organization.
The detection model based on binary machine code image is proposed. The binary machine code of malware and benign software is converted into RGB images, and the images are classified using CNN. A detection model based on information entropy image is proposed. Information entropy is used to generate information entropy images of benign software and malware, and image features are extracted by CNN to obtain the classification model. Data were collected and preprocessed, two CNN models were trained and experimental results were obtained. The fusion model is realized by ensemble learning, and the results of single feature model and fusion model are compared and analyzed.

Full text of « Ontario regulations, 1988 »

The information obtained by this method includes application menu item name, domain name, Internet protocol address, attack instruction, registry key, file location modified by the program, etc. String analysis is often combined with other static or dynamic detection methods to improve defects. Ye et al. extracted strings from application program interface calls and semantic sequences that reflect attack intent in 2008 to detect malware. The system includes a parser to extract interpretable strings from each portable executable file , and a support vector machine -based detector.

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4b, with our model having the highest ROC/AUC value of 0.94. It shows that our model efficiently predicts lesser false positives, i.e. interpret a sick person as healthy fewer times than the two closest competing models. It is pertinent to mention here that even small improvement is very significant in this context given the life threatening consequences of delayed detection thereby our model is demonstrably more reliable. Moreover, most currently available PPDP technologies employ algorithms based on generalization. However, while generalization-based algorithms have achieved improved privacy protection relative to earlier approaches, such algorithms have obvious defects, such as large information loss, which reduces data availability. Therefore, a new PPDP approach is needed to ensure the protection of sensitive information with continuous data releases and improved data availability. In this section, we describe our intra-shard consensus, leader-stable fast Byzantine fault tolerance.

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We also evaluated our design on unimodal sentiment analysis and on different neural networks. The results suggested the robustness of our proposal. In the future, we will integrate multimodal sentiment analysis with event evolution and develop a prototype to monitor sentiment evolution of events. To efficiently and securely track and share medical data throughout various medical institutions, we use blockchain and smart contracts to achieve this goal. We store small pieces of critical metadata on chain, such as access control information, broadcast message of encryption keys. While patients’ medical data are encrypted and stored off chain in private databases of healthcare providers.

The software module will also carry out real-time monitoring of the position of the elderly, and the current position of the elderly is matched with the prediction model. Once it is found that the position of the elderly is inconsistent with the model, a timer will be started. The workflow of the software module is shown in the Fig. The Byzantine computing power ratio αk can be low in the first period (maybe less than 1/3).

More accustomed to the musical stimuli over an extended period of time is also light on trends inherent to this type of stimulus or authentication model. Inspired by the previous studies, this research attempts to fill the gap with different types of multi music stimulation to evoke brain signals for a multidialogue long-term evaluation in EEG-based authentication studies. Impact of epochs on the performance in the training process. Anger, happiness, sadness, neutral, excitement, frustration, fear, surprise, and other, but we only retain the first four types in the comparisons of experimental results. There are 120 videos in the training set, 31 videos in the test set. The train and test folds contain 4290 and 1208 utterances respectively. It can be seen that the number of iterations is different and the generated images are different. Pre-prepare—message type, Pn —primary node index, BLKk —a newly generated block, d—the message digest/hash value of the new block.

However, the recall value of this model is relatively low, indicating that some malicious samples are predicted to be benign. For the problem studied in this paper, malicious samples are more harmful when predicted as benign samples, so the recall index of this model is deficient. In the detection experiment based on information entropy image, the effect of this model is better than that of binary machine code image model. The accuracy was 0.949 and F1 was 0.948, respectively 0.047 higher than the binary code image model. This model has a higher recall value and a lower FPR value, indicating that benign software and malware have lower false positive rates respectively. The overall effect of the fusion model is better than that of the two single feature models.

Full text of « Ontario regulations, 1988 »

We compare four networks, including the unidirectional GRU, the bidirectional GRU (Bi-GRU), the unidirectional LSTM, and the bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM). We can see that the bidirectional networks outperform the unidirectional networks. This is because the bidirectional networks consider the information of two directions in the utterance sequence. LSTM and GRU share the ability of modeling long-range dependencies, but GRU performs slightly better than LSTM. On both datasets, Bi-GRU gets the best performance among all networks. We have taken a three-stage approach to parallelize the algorithm as explained below.

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The conversion value for 1 USD to 0.0000419 BTC. BeInCrypto is currently using the following exchange rate 0.0000419. You can convert USD to other currencies like ETH, ADA or BUSD. We updated our exchange rates on 2022/07/20 16:44.

The updated ledger information after client A initiates the settlement request is shown in Table 9. From the running results of the system, it shows that proposed FSM system successfully uploads the trade information between clients to blockchain ledger through lightning network. The cold start processing layer will process the cold start problem of different strategies according to whether the user binds the ORCID ID or not. Next, the hybrid recommendation model layer uses word2vec word vector model to initially obtain papers with high similarity to user portraits.

However, it is easy for the prover to get a valid LP with fake information by colluding with m witnesses, i.e., P-W collusion. An entropy-based trust model is proposed for such an attack, but this model breach users’ privacy. Existed entries and the VMs update their local co-located VM lists. MMNet does not require a coordinator in Dom0. Each VM on the physical node writes to the XenStore directory to advertise its presence and watches for membership updates.
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By using token rewards as positive incentive and punishment as negative incentive, the incentive mechanism for reputation of stakeholders is realized. Smart contract of RAB in RTB-SCM is designed to realize token-based reputation R&P mechanism, which will be introduced in Sect. Of the three categories of multimodal sentiment analysis that we introduced in the related work section. These three vectors will be used to generate the output vector. We use a compatibility function of the query with the corresponding key to compute the weight assigned to each value, and accumulate the weighted sum of all values as the output, denoted as Z. Specially, we create a query vector, a key vector and a value vector for each utterance by multiplying the input vector x i by three parameter matrices trained during the training process, denoted as W Q , W K , and W V . The vectors Q, K, and V are with fewer dimensions than the input vector. Thus, if there are L utterances in a video, the sizes of matrices Q, K, and V are L∗d q , L∗d k , and L∗d v , respectively.
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Shoker focused on the problem of energy wasting of PoW and designed a new protocol called proof of exercise. It is an alternative for PoW, using computing power to solve matrix-based problem instead of useless puzzles in PoW. Ambili presented Proof of Stake Velocity to solve energy wasting problem. PoSV modifies the coin-aging function from the linear relationship of time to an exponential decay function on time, which discourages the coin hoarding of users.
Later, Gatys and others improved their work, strengthened the detail control in style transfer, and could control the degree of style transfer, but did not control the image content. Luan Enhanced the work based on Gatys’ work and controlled the content details of style transfer . The CNNMRF of Li C Is a combination algorithm of Markov random field model and trained deep convolutional neural network. It matches each input neural region with the most similar region in the style image, reducing inaccurate feature transfer and retaining The specific characteristics of the content image. The simulation is implemented in Python 3.7 with an Intel Core i7-8550U CPU at 1.8 GHz 1.99 GHz and 8G RAM. We use secp256k1 as the elliptic curve algorithm, a Probabilistic Polynomial Time algorithm as ring signature scheme and DBPK-Log protocol as distance-bounding protocol. Consider a scenario with 1000 users in a segment of BIMP and every 100 users are divided into ten location areas.

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